DANCES OF INDIA:
The major dance form in India are,
- Classical dance
- Folk dance
Classical dance are originated from Bharat Muni’s Natyashastra. In classical dance a dancer should be trained to communicate the Navarasas.
The Navarasas are:
- Love – shringaara,
- Mirth – haasya,
- Compassion – karuna,
- Valour – veera,
- Anger – roudra,
- Fear – bhayanak,
- Disgust – bibhatsa,
- Wonder – adbhuta and
- Peace – shaanta.
There are eight classical dance forms have in India. They are,
- Bharatnatyam Dance was originated from Tamil Nadu. It is the oldest classical dance tradition of India. Therotical foundations trace to the ancient tamil text by BHARATA MUNI’S, Natya Shastra. The study of the technique and grammar of body movement in Bharatanatyam is by Abinaya Darpana by NANDIKESVARA.
- Kathakali Dance was originated from Kerala. It is a blend of dance, music and acting and dramatizes stories, which are mostly adapted from the Indian epics. Kathakali derives its textual sanction from Balarama Bharatam and Hastalakshana Deepika.
- Kathak Dance was originated from Uttar Pradesh. Kathak has been derived from the word “Katha” which means a ‘story’. Kathakar which means the people one who narrate stories. Kathak evolved during the Bhakthi movement. It is being the only classical dance of India having links with Muslim culture. So it has been performed in both Hindu and Muslim court. The Radha-Krishna theme proved immensely popular alongwith the works of Mirabai, Surdas, Nandadas and Krishnadas.
- Manipuri was originated from Manipur. It belongs to Hindu Vaishnavism.It is the performance of love inspired dance drama of Radha-Krishna called “Rasleela”. Several texts beginning with Bharata Muni’s, Natya Shastra (200 B.C.E. to 200 C.E.) provide information on this dance form.
- Odissi was originated from Odisha. Therotical foundations trace to the ancient tamil text by BHARATA MUNI’S, Natya Shastra. It is originated in Hindu temples of Odisha. It was performed predominantly by women and expressed religious stories and spiritual ideas of Vaishnavism.
- Kuchipudi was originated from Andra Pradesh. Bharata Muni’s, Natya Shastra provide information on this dance form. It is largely developed as a Hindu god – Krishna – oriented Vaishnavism.
- Sattriya was originated from Assam. It is a dance drama performance art with origins in the Krishna centered vaishnavism monasteries of ASSAM. Attributed to 15th century Bhakti movement. One act plays of sattriya are called Ankiya Nat.
- Mohiniyattam Dance was originated from Kerala. Mohini – a mythical enchantress avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu, who helps the good prevail over evil by developing her feminine powers. Singing and acting are a play through the dance. The song sang during the dance is the hybrid of Malayalam and Sanskrit that is known as Manipravalam.
Folk dance are performed to express joy during arrival of seasons, birth of a child, wedding and festivals. It also represent the culture and tradition of the community from where it originated. There are different types of folk dances have in India they are,
- Andhra Pradesh – Kuchipudi, Vilasini Natyam, Andhra Natyam, Bhamakalpam, Veeranatyam, Dappu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa, Kolattam, Butta Bommalu.
- Arunachal Pradesh – Buiya, Chalo, Wancho, Pasi Kongki, Ponung, Popir, Bardo Chham.
- Assam – Bihu, Bichhua, Natpuja, Maharas, Kaligopal, Bagurumba, Naga dance, Khel Gopal, Tabal Chongli, Canoe, Jhumura Hobjanai.
- Bihar – Jata-Jatin, Bakho-Bakhain, Panwariya, Sama Chakwa, Bidesia.
- Chattisgarh – Gaur Maria, Panthi, Raut Nacha, Pandwani, Vedamati, Kapalik, Bharthari Charit, Chandaini.
- Gujarat – Garba, Dandiya Ras, Tippani Juriun, Bhavai.
- Goa – Tarangamel, Koli, Dekhni, Fugdi, Shigmo, Ghode, Modni, Samayi nrutya, Jagar, Ranmale, Gonph, Tonnya mell.
- Haryana – Jhumar, Phag, Daph, Dhamal, Loor, Gugga, Khor, Gagor.
- Himachal Pradesh – Jhora, Jhali, Chharhi, Dhaman, Chhapeli, Mahasu, Nati, Dangi.
- Jammu and Kashmir – Rauf, Hikat, Mandjas, Kud Dandi Nach, Damali.
- Jharkhand – Alkap, Karma Munda, Agni, Jhumar, Janani Jhumar, Mardana Jhumar, Paika, Phagua,Hunta Dance, Mundari Dance, Sarhul, Barao, Jhitka, Danga, Domkach, Ghora Naach.
- Karnataka – Yakshagan, Huttari, Suggi, Kunitha, Karga, Lambi.
- Kerala – Kathakali (Classical), Ottam Thulal, Mohiniattam, Kaikottikali.
- Lakshadweep – Kolkali and parichakali.
- Madhya Pradesh – Jawara, Matki, Aada, Khada Nach, Phulpati, Grida Dance, Selalarki, Selabhadoni, Maanch.
- Maharashtra – Lavani, Nakata, Koli, Lezim, Gafa, Dahikala Dasavtar or Bohada.
- Manipur – Dol Cholam, Thang Ta, Lai Haraoba, Pung Cholom, Khamba Thaibi, Nupa Dance, Raslila, Khubak Ishei, Lhou Sha.
- Meghalaya – Ka Shad Suk Mynsiem, Nongkrem, Laho.
- Mizoram – Cheraw Dance, Khuallam, Chailam, Sawlakin, Chawnglaizawn, Zangtalam, Par Lam, Sarlamkai/Solakia, Tlanglam.
- Nagaland – Rangma, Bamboo Dance, Zeliang, Nsuirolians, Gethinglim, Temangnetin, Hetaleulee.
- Odisha – Odissi (Classical), Savari, Ghumara, Painka, Munari, Chhau.
- Punjab – Bhangra, Giddha, Daff, Dhaman, Bhand, Naqual.
- Rajasthan – Ghumar, Chakri, Ganagor, Jhulan Leela, Jhuma, Suisini, Ghapal, Kalbeliya.
- Sikkim – Chu Faat Dance, Sikmari, Singhi Chaam or the Snow Lion Dance, Yak Chaam, Denzong Gnenha, Tashi Yangku Dance, Khukuri Naach, Chutkey Naach, Maruni Dance.
- Tamil Nadu – Kumi, Kolattam, Kavadi.
- Tripura – Hojagiri.
- Uttarakhand – Garhwali, Kumayuni, Kajari, Jhora, Raslila, Chappeli.
- Uttar Pradesh – Nautanki, Raslila, Kajri, Jhora, Chappeli.
MUSIC OF INDIA:
The main traditions of classical music in India are Carnatic music and Hindustani Music. Hindustani music are found in the northern and central regions. Carnatic Music are found predominantaly in the peninsular regions.
Carnatic music system are commonly associated with the southern part of India that are in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
Types of carnatic music are,
- Tanam- Pallavi
This music became popular during the Mughal Empire. Some Persian and Arabic elements have been assimilated in this music system.
Types of Hindustani music are,
THEATRE FORMS OF INDIA:
Traditional theatre has a natural flow of living tradition. It is an expression of the feelings of the community. It reflect the ideals of the society, its determination to survive, its ethos, emotions, fellow-feelings, and so on. Drama in itself is a complete form of arts. It includes in its framework acting, dialogue, poetry, music, etc.
Different forms of traditional theatre’s are,
- Saang – Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan.
- Bhand Pather – Jammu and Kashmir.
- Nautanki – Uttar Pradesh.
- Raasleela – Uttar Pradesh.
- Bhavai – Gujarat.
- Jatra – West Bengal.
- Maach – Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan.
- Bhaona – Bengal, Orissa,U.P and Assam.
- Tamaasha – Maharashtra.
- Dashavatar – Konkan Coast.
- Krishnattam – Kerala.
- Mudiyettu – Kerala.
- Theyyam (Kaliyattam) – Kerala.
- Koodiyaattam – Kerala.
- Yakshagana – Karnataka.
- Therukoothu – Tamil Nadu.
- Swang – Punjab and Haryana.
- Ankia Naat – Assam.
- Villu paatu – Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
- Kuravanji – Tamil Nadu.
- Burra katha – Andra Pradesh.
- Bayalaata – Karnataka.
- Tala maddale – Karnataka.
- Pagati Veshalu – Andra Pradesh and Telungana.
- Garoda – Gujarat.
- Kariyila – Himachal Pradesh.
- Ojapali – Assam.
- Powada – Maharashtra.
- Naqals – Punjab.
Puppet Forms of India:
It is the most remarkable and ingenious inventions of the man. There are four types of puppet forms have they are String Puppets, Shadow Puppets, Rod Puppets and Glove Puppets.
- Kathputli – Rajasthan
- Kundhei – Orissa
- Gombeyatta – Karnataka
- Bommalattam – Tamil Nadu.
- Togalu Gombeyatta – Karnataka
- Tholu Bommalata – Andhra Pradesh
- Ravanachhaya – Orissa.
- Putul Nautch – West Bengal
- Yampuri – Bihar.
- Pavakoothu – Kerala.
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